Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth of a reservoir.
Mining stones and metal was the first human activity since prehistoric times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for minerals, the analysis of the potential benefit of a mine, extraction of the desired materials, and the ultimate recovery of the land after the mine is closed.
Mining operations often create a negative environmental impact, both during mining and after the mine is closed. Therefore, most countries in the world have adopted regulations to lessen the impact. The safety of workers have long been a major concern and therefore have significantly improved safety in mines.
The process of mining from discovery of a reservoir through the extraction of minerals and finally to returning the land to its natural state consists of several different stages. The first is the discovery of the site, which is carried out through prospecting or exploration to find and define the extent, location and value of the deposit. This leads to an estimate of mathematical tools to estimate the size and grade of the project.